NOTAM (D) - Used for enroute navigation...these notams would apply to navaid information, landing information, and most IFR related information
NOTAM (L) - Used for information only applying to a specific area/airport that is not (debatable) critical to flight. Information such as a taxiway closure or a runway barrier would be included in this type of NOTAM.
FDC NOTAM - Used for information pertaining to regulations, airspace, procedures, etc... For example the flight restrictions banning VFR aircraft right after sept 11 were issued in the form of a FDC NOTAM.
Can't recall any class III NOTAMS. Class II are published after two weeks of issuance. This book can be subscribed to from the FAA but it is rather expensive for the average pilot. Jeppessen subscribers will get most of them I believe if you read all the updates. The briefer will look them up for you on your request, otherwise you only get the most current ones unless he remembers some common ones. I'm not sure the FSS follow the system exactly but it's hard to know. I've had them give me the same NOTAM for longer than two weeks.